In our modern world, we are currently caught in a tug of war between those who believe in the supernatural and paranormal nature of extraordinary events and those who seek to refute them by providing rational explanations or placing these unusual occurrences under the microscope of scientific investigation. Many myths, miracles and strange phenomena over time have been disbelieved, debunked and dismissed by skeptics and individuals of conventional logic and science. And yet, believers in things beyond mainstream truths continue to insist in the validity of their unconventional beliefs although evidence to the contrary has already been presented to them repeatedly.

One example of an on-going debate between believers and skeptics concerning a supernatural phenomenon is the controversial mystery behind the Naga fireballs. And in this article, we will not be just talking about what the Naga fireballs are and the tale surrounding this unusual yearly manifestation; we will also shed light on the two sides fighting to gain supremacy over this alleged paranormal occurrence. One side believes in the legitimacy of the Naga fireballs’ magical wonder, while the opposing team has dared to unmask this phenomenon as nothing more than a human-made hoax.

What Are The Naga Fireballs?


The Naga Fireballs are the reported tens to thousands glowing balls which spontaneously appear from and float above Thailand’s Mekong River at night every year. According to those who have seen them, these blazing balls of light emit a reddish color, and their sizes vary from smaller bubbles to bigger orbs as large as basketballs.

Also referred to as “bung fai paya nak,” “Mekong lights,” or the “Naga Dancing Fire Balls,” these fireballs shoot up from the water and rise in the air as high as around 600 feet before dissipating completely. They ordinarily occur in the chilly evenings between late October and early November along the 300-mile-long stretch of the Mekong River. However, there are reports that they have occasionally surfaced in smaller ponds, rivers, and lakes found within this region of Thailand.

The Phayanak Festival & The Naga


Reports of floating fireballs are not solely unique to Thailand as many cases of similar fiery orbs have also been spotted in different parts of Asia. However, it is in Thailand that the Naga fireballs are celebrated as part of the “Phayanak Festival,” an annual event in the country in which Buddha is greeted by the locals upon his arrival on Earth at the end of “vassa” – the three-month Rain Retreat or Buddhist Lenten season. This usually takes place on the 15th day of the 11th lunar month and is held in October every year.

The “Wan Ok Phansa” is the last day of the festival and locals in Thailand celebrate the return of Buddha by gathering near the riverbank to observe the fireballs rise from the waters, float up in the air, and then disappear in the heavens. According to local mythology, the orbs of bright red light that appear above the Mekong River each year are actually the exhaled breath of the Naga or the “Phaya Naga,” which is a colossal sea serpent residing in the riverbed and wakes up annually to observe the end of “vassa” or the Buddhist Lent.



Although many have reported having personally seen the Naga fireballs arise from the Mekong River, there is still no universal agreement on the possible cause of the phenomenon and the reason why it consistently appears on an annual basis. Several theories, however, have been proposed in an attempt to explain the extraordinary event, and some of them can be classified as supernatural, natural or human-made.

Given the mythological origin of the Naga Fireballs, the apparent supernatural explanation of this yearly phenomenon is that the burning red lights from the water of the Mekong River are indeed caused by a huge sea serpent living in its riverbed. Of course, to support this theory, the existence of the Naga must first be adequately proven.

And so far, one of the proofs presented by those who believe in the existence of these magical sea serpents is a photograph featuring around 30 American soldiers supposedly carrying a 7.3-meter sea serpent found in the Mekong River back in 1973. Another proof supporting the supernatural value of the Naga fireballs and the existence of the Naga itself can be found at a Buddhist temple in Nong Khai City where fossilized bones of the mythical sea creature, such as an egg and a tooth, are reportedly on display.


Though they do not refute the possibility that reddish balls of fiery light can rise from the water, some insist on a more natural explanation for the Naga fireballs. A popular explanation raised by these individuals is referred to as the Swamp Gas Theory. This theory is familiar to those who are interested in UFO phenomena, and it proposes that the organic deposits in the riverbed of the Mekong River decompose, which in turn, produce methane gas. This gas forms bubbles that float its way up to the surface, and once the gas comes into contact with oxygen-air, these pockets of methane spontaneously ignite and are consequently set aflame before they take flight into the sky.

This theory was presented by a pediatrician, Dr. Manos Kanoksilp, who extensively studied the Naga Fireballs. To him, producing these blazing orbs also require precise conditions such as the perfect alignment of the Earth, the moon, and the sun.

A similar explanation to the Swamp Gas Theory is the reasoning raised by some people that the Naga Fireballs are produced by the combustible phosphine gas that came from the muddy environment of the river.  In fact, Saksit Tridech, the deputy secretary of the Thai Science Ministry, along with a group of scientists, conducted a study regarding the physical conditions surrounding the river, and they concluded that the Naga Fireballs are produced as a result of the large deposits of phosphine gas found in the area. Phosphine, however, is not a naturally-occurring gas and so, it is posited that this type of gas is the consequence of a bacterial reduction of phosphate in the decay of organic material.

Other scientists also theorized that the Naga Fireballs are free-floating plasma orbs that form when surface electricity is released into a solution – which in this case, is the Mekong River’s waters. However, the problem with this theory is that this type of orb is not only different in color and appearance from the reported characteristics of the Naga Fireballs, but it can only be produced using high voltage electricity that does not naturally occur in the environment.



The plasma orb theory is not the only supposition whose soundness has been disputed by skeptics and supernatural believers alike. The phosphine gas theory and the swamp methane gas theory have also been cast aside by some people as the most logical explanation to the Naga Fireballs. These people say that the perfectly precise conditions required to consistently produce the orbs year after year cannot possibly occur in a natural setting unless some man-made manipulation is involved.

And so, we have now reached the most controversial explanation of them all, and this particular theory claims that the annual appearance of the Naga Fireballs is nothing more than a hoax to perpetuate the popularity of the Phayanak Festival and the Mekong River, which consequently has a positive effect on the local economy and the livelihood of the area’s residents.

In 2002, a documentary aired on the program “Code Cracking” of the ITV television network investigated what could be the source of the mysterious fireballs that surface every year during the celebration of the festival. The team had to take a boat and quietly travel to the Loatian side of the Mekong River. Once they crossed the river, they found Loatian soldiers firing tracer rounds into the sky. Those who analyzed the footage of the event also came to the conclusion that the Naga Fireballs were caused by the firing of flare guns from the other side of the river while the festival is ongoing on the Thailand side. The loud audience of the festival was not able to hear the sound of the gunshot as it was drowned out by the cheering noises of people and the noisy crackle of fireworks during the event. And so, they would not have been able to tell so easily if they were being deceived in the darkness and from half a mile away.

With the stunning revelation that the Naga Fireballs could be a man-made phenomenon originally intended to generate buzz and draw crowds for the annual Buddhist Lent-related festival, does this truly mean that this strange phenomenon is nothing more than a hoax?

For me, the answer would be no. In cases where there are varying theories to explain an unusual occurrence, we must not be so quick to cling onto a single explanation. And in the case of the Naga fireballs, there is no such thing as single truth, as the opposing sides of believers and skeptics have presented their respective evidence and have chosen to uphold their own perspectives on the matter. And so, at least for now, whether you believe in the supernatural, natural, or human-made explanations about the mysterious Naga fireballs is completely up to you. However, keep in mind that regardless of which perspective you think best explains this phenomenon, you should always, always try to keep an open mind.